Monday, 17 September 2018

Early Znosko-Borovsky

 The British Chess Magazine, 1921 page 172


Eugene Znosko-Borovsky (1884-1954), is very well known for his popular chess books published between the wars, all based on his maxim that "chess is a game of understanding, not of memory", these include: 

The Middle Game in Chess, London, 1922.

How Not to Play Chess, London 1931. (See Praface for author's maxim given above)

How to Play the Chess Openings, London 1935.

The Art of Chess Combination, London 1936.

How to Play Chess Endings, London 1940.

These books were also published in other languages, and are frequently mentioned in the "Znosko-Borovsky" entries in various Western chess encyclopedias and dictionaries. However, none of these reference works, (with one exception*), give specific details of his earlier Russian chess books, and chess columns, all published in his native St. Petersburg between 1907 and 1913.   

Znosko-Borovsky's first chess publication was a tournament book on the 4th All Russian Chess Congress held in St. Petersburg in 1905/1906: IV Всероссийский Шахматный Турнир,  (IV Vserossiyskiy Shakhmatnyy Turnir), published in St. Petersburg in 1907. This is Sakharov (1968) 75, LN 5376, and only 500 copies were printed. 

In 1908 Znosko-Borovsky succeeded Chigorin, who died in January of that year, as editor of the chess columns in the St. Petersburg periodicals Novaye Vremya, and Niva. The first of these he conducted from January 1908 to April 1909, and the second from 1908 until 1916.

Znosko-Borovsky's first column in Niva, 1908

Znosko-Borovsky co-edited a book on the 1909 St. Petersburg International Tournament with Emanuel Lasker and Boris Malyutin: Международный Шахматный Конгресс В Память М. И. Чигорина, Петербург 1909, (Mezhdunarodnyi Shakhmatnyi Kongress v Pamyat M. I. Chigorina, S.-Peterburg, 1909), published in St. Petersburg in 1910. Sakharov (1968) 77, LN 5296, 1010 copies.

Also in 1910 he issued a general chess work, Пути Развитія Шахматной Игры, (Puti Razvitiya Shakhmatnoy Igry), (The Evolution of Chess),  with chapters on The Art and Science of Chess, Old and New Schools, The Tragedy of Chigorin, Lasker, Creativity of Schlechter, In the Future, and Chess Instruction. The first chapter is an historical article, and this book is listed in the history section of the LN catalogue at no. 259. it also appears in the Aucta bibliograpy, no. 1298. Sakharov (1968) 66, 1000 copies printed.





Puti Razvitiya Shakhmatnoy Igry, page 67


The following year Znosko-Borovsky issued the first monograph on Capablanca: Х.-Р. Капабланка, Опытъ Характеристики, (J. R. Capablanca-Opyt Kharakteristiki), St Petersburg 1911. (J. R. Capablanca: An Attempt at Characterisation). Sakharov (1968) 69, LN 3041. 




This 42 page book, based on lectures given by Znosko-Borovsky to the St. Petersburg Chess Society and the Moscow Chess Club, has no complete games but discusses in detail Capablanca's style of play, and gives as examples 15 positions and continuations from his games.  Seven of these positions are from  his 1909 match with Marshall, six are from his victorious tournament in San Sebastian in 1911, and the final two are from games against A. W. Fox played in 1906, and I. J. Sheffer in a simultaneous display in 1909.  





In the above game, black's 19th move ....e4:f3, has been omitted. This game is also on pages 142/143 of The Unknown Capablanca, by Hooper & Brandreth, with the moves numbered one earlier.
 
Znosko-Borovsky's premise in his lectures, and in this book, is that chess players can broadly be divided between "time-men" and "space-men", roughly equating to the old combinative school of chess and the new positional school respectively. Assessing Capablanca's style of play up to 1911 the author comes down strongly on the time-man side.

The British Chess Magazine, obviously impressed by this work, devoted 10 pages to a detailed review on pages 57 to 64 and 100 to 102 of its 1912 volume, with long extracts translated into English.



Znosko-Borovsky's next book was a general chess handbook published in 1913: Кодексъ Шахматной Игры (Kodeks Shakhmatnoy Igry). Sakharov (1968) 94, LN 1306, 1000 copies printed.




This includes chapters on how to play and the rules of the game, the organisation of chess competitions, chess notation, a chess dictionary/glossary, and details of the rules, regulations and organisation of a number of chess associations, including draft statutes of the All-Russian Chess Union which was established in 1914.






Finally, Znosko-Borovsky wrote a book on the Muzio Gambit which was published in Leipzig in 1911, and Sakharov 63 records a textbook by A. Goncharov; Краткий Учебник Шахматной Игры, (A Brief Chess Tutorial),   which was printed/published by Znosko-Borovsky in 1914.

The outbreak of World War 1, followed by the Revolution of 1917 curtailed Znosko-Borovsky's chess publishing activities until the early 1920's, by which time he had emigrated to Paris.

* The exception is Dizionario Enciclopedico Degli Scacchi, by Adriano Chicco and Giorgio Porreca, Milan 1971, which mentions the chess columns edited by Znosko-Borovsky from 1908.


 
  Below are some of the books used for this article:




                                         ©   Michael Clapham 2018

Friday, 31 August 2018

Fischer launches two new chess magazines!

Well, not quite, but articles about Fischer helped launch two new magazines in the 1990's.

ARHIȘAH: Revistǎ Lunarǎ de Șah, published in Bucharest, Romania, was first issued in November 1990, and a promotional letter from the Director, Marian Stere states that this is the first number of the first private chess magazine in Romania.



The very first article, by Carlos Mato of Spain, asks the question: Fischer or Kasparov?, Some Memories, and compares the chess careers of the two world champions.
  

The second article, on pages 4-7, gives the first part of Kasparov's interview with Playboy magazine in 1989 (ARHIȘAH states May 1989 but other sources give November 1989), and this includes some Fischer related questions from the interviewer.








 
Finally, in the round-up of chess news on page 18, the magazine reports on the patent applied for by Fischer for his new digital chess clock.



 
The rest of this first issue of ARHIȘAH includes a report on the Karpov v Timman Candidates final match in Kuala-Lumpur, with eight games, and an historical article on Victor Costin, the Romanian chess player and editor of the first chess magazine in Romania: Recreațiunea, from 1912 to 1914.


 
________________________________________________________________

Jaque Mate: Revista del Instituto Superior Latinoamericano de Ajedrez, Havana. Cuba. Aňo 1 Num 1, 1993.





This magazine is not recorded in Di Felice's Chess Periodicals but this is a re-launch of Jaque Mate: Revista Cubana de Ajedrez, which ran from 1964 to 1977, Di Felice 1199.


The magazine appeared a few months after the 1992 return match between Fischer and Spassky, and the first 15 games of the match are given without notes on pages 24 to 26.  





This 64 page magazine includes over 150 games, and a selection of articles including an historical item on the St Petersburg tournament of 1895/96.



Sunday, 26 August 2018

Világunk 64 Mezön, Our World of 64 Squares. Another book of photographs



Világunk 64 Mezön, by András Ozsváth, Budapest 1978.


The title translates as Our World of 64 Squares and this is another book packed full of photos; for size comparison purposes I show it with The Oxford Companion to Chess.



This miniature book, measuring approximately 6.5cm square, has 400 pages and circa 250 photos (including several of the author); these are often familiar but many were new to me. Here is a selection:

Page 125 - Ilievski playing Fischer in the first round at Skopje 1967:



Page 292 - Participants at Barmen 1869:


Pages 296/297 - Leningrad 1934:



Pages 302/303 - Bad Kisssingen 1928 and Bern 1932:

 


Pages 328/329 - A photograph featuring Lenin in 1897:


Pages 360/361 - The Hungarian Chess Federation Congress, Budapest 1911:



The book also has a considerable amount of text, many games (including several by the author), and a monthly calendar giving the birth and death dates of leading chess figures, including the author.



Actual size of the above pages:



Throughout the book there is inconsistency in the order of player's names; for example, pages 186/187 have Réti Richárd and Richard Teichmann:



Similarly Raoul José Capablanca appears on page 111:



 and Davis William Evans on page 293:



I also spotted "John" Miles on page 316: 



Hours of amusement if you read Hungarian, and have a magnifying glass; although the 250 photographs alone make this a very entertaining little chess book.


                                    © Michael Clapham 2018

Tuesday, 14 August 2018

British Chess Literature to 1914 by Timothy Harding





Dr. Timothy Harding, author of previous deeply researched works on chess history including Correspondence Chess in Britain and Ireland, 1824-1987, 2011, Eminent Victorian Chess Players, 2012, and Joseph Henry Blackburne, 2015, all published by McFarland,  surveys British (and Irish) chess literature up to the First World War in this latest work:

British Chess Literature to 1914: A Handbook for Historians, published by McFarland & Company, Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina 2018.

The Preface sets out clearly the aims and content of the book which has a special emphasis on chess columns, and these are comprehensively examined in the first four chapters, plus the very detailed 45 page Appendix I. British and Irish Chess Columns to 1914: An Annotated List, describing nearly 600 columns. Chess Periodicals also receive extensive coverage, especially The Chess Player's Chronicle and its successors which are covered in a separate chapter of 54 pages. 



                  


The history and description of chess columns and periodicals take up six of the seven chapters, and 230 of the 274 pages which discuss chess literature, leaving just one chapter of 44 pages for the comparatively weak examination of chess books; and anyone hoping for a thorough review of the rich history of British chess books will be very disappointed. As early as page 10 Harding dismisses old chess books as having "little to offer the historian" and it is clear that the author is much more inclined towards chess columns and periodicals than general chess books.

Harding forewarns the reader of the cursory coverage of chess books stating that he has not attempted to discuss every chess book that was published because he considers that their value to historians is limited compared to what columns and magazines have to offer. He therefore provides a "less comprehensive and more personal view about old chess books, concentrating on some trends and particular titles that interest the author". 

                                      _____________________________________________

The book is the result of fifteen years of research, partly, no doubt, alongside the explorations for his earlier publications, and the author has dug up considerable new information. He clarifies many issues and solves several mysteries, but also puts forward many more such as: 

Who wrote The Illustrated London News column before Staunton? (page 29), 

Who were Staunton's backers in The Chess World? (page 141),

Who edited and contributed to The London Chess Fortnightly while the nominal editor Emanuel Lasker was in America? (page 174), 

What were the precise dates of the various editors of one of the very best chess columns in The Field? (page 61), 

Who edited the third series of The Chess Player's Chronicle between 1859 and 1861? (page 208). 

There is also the tantalising reference on page 157 to the Prospectus issued in August 1879 by Hoffer and Zukertort for their forthcoming periodical The Chess Monthly, "which appears not to have survived".  




Harding is not averse to criticising his fellow authors (see for example his article A reply to Richard Moody in the 2nd edition of his book on the Evans Gambit, Texas 1996), and on page 16 he again has a go at Gino Di Felice's Chess Periodicals, Jefferson 2010, having previously lambasted this work on his Chess Mail website and again on pages 83 et seq. of Caissa, the Journal of Chess and Board Game History, 2/2016. Despite the few omissions and errors in Di Felice's work, it is undoubtedly a very valuable aid to chess researchers.

The comprehensive coverage of 19th century chess columns is the product of some remarkable research, not only of chess history but also of the social, cultural and financial circumstances of the time, and Harding associates the fluctuating popularity of chess and its literature with the changing social and financial climate during the century. 

One matter that the author straightens out in the chapter on The Earliest Chess Editors is the editorship of the chess column in The Lancet from 1823 to 1824. This was by Thomas Wakley and not George Walker to whom the column has often been attributed, including by Whyld in his Chess Columns: A List, Olomouc 2002.

Harding also observes that such was the proliferation of chess columns during what he describes in chapter 3 as The Golden Age of Chess Columns, ca. 1860-1865,  that it has been impossible to examine them all, leaving much material for future research.

The author makes helpful remarks on the usefulness, or otherwise, of the numerous chess columns to chess historians, particularly praising Land and Water and The Field for example, while writing off others as having little of interest. Harding generally writes in a free-flowing, easy to read style, although there are plenty of places where the prose could be improved. There is little, if any humour, but he does evoke the atmosphere of the era and brings to life some of the frictions between the factions, i.e. the ill-feeling and animosities between the English and foreign chess editors of the time.

                     _____________________________________________


The chapter entitled A Short History of Chess Magazines up to 1914 gives brief details of most of the English language magazines up to that date, including some American Magazines, and Harding notes that many were short lived and were not financially viable. In discussing The British Chess Magazine Harding highlights the revolutionary change, in 1892, in the placement of annotations within the game score instead of at the end, "where they had hitherto languished in all chess books and columns with miserable indications (sometimes omitted or misplaced) to show where they belonged". 

Some periodicals are examined in more depth than others and The British Miscellany, forerunner of The Chess Player's Chronicle, but with little chess content itself, receives inordinate coverage on pages 178 to 192 and in the whole of Appendix IV. While historically important in the evolution of chess periodicals and including some of the final games played by de la Bourdonnais, the attention given does not balance with the coverage of some other mainstream chess periodicals which are hardly discussed at all.

Harding's very detailed account of The Chess Player's Chronicle is now the definitive historical record of this long running periodical, with comprehensive information on the many stops and starts, owners, editors and publishers throughout its chequered career from 1841 to 1902. He is sympathetic to the difficulties facing Staunton in the early years due to the shortage of suitable chess material in the 1840's, and when discussing Staunton's successor, R. B. Brien, he quotes Brien's astute comment regarding the effort involved in game annotations; that "few appreciate the labour but all reap the advantages". This certainly hits the nail on the head not only in annotating games but in chess writing in general. 

The author also raises the very valid point that, due to the break in publication of the CPC in 1857 and 1858, there was no contemporary coverage in British chess periodicals of the important Manchester 1857 and Birmingham 1858 tournaments, and even more lamentably, on Morphy's first visit to Europe.
 
One matter that I disagree on is Harding's assessment of The Chess Amateur (1906 to 1930) as having "little to offer historians".  This successful periodical had a star cast of contributors and a great many articles and items of interest to current chess historians, not least the many items taken from the contemporary chess historian W. S. Branch's column in The Cheltenham Examiner.

               _____________________________________________


The final chapter on chess literature; A Century and half of British Chess Books, actually examines nearly four and half centuries of chess books published from 1475 to 1914. However, as previously mentioned, the author has a low opinion of the usefulness of old chess books to historians and researchers, claiming that chess columns and periodicals contain far more useful factual information. He does however, make some valid points about how antiquarian books should be viewed from a cultural history perspective and he also acknowledges that most old chess books have some value for collectors, but he erroneously singles out chess problem works as being the most desirable. Tournament and match books, biographies and many early treatises are equally sought after.

The discussion of chess books in this chapter is cursory in the extreme, many important books are not mentioned at all and many others receive only the briefest passing reference. For example Sarratt's two volume work A Treatise on the Game of Chess, London 1808, is discussed at length on pages 238 to 240, but his more important, although abridged, translations of the works of Damiano, Ruy Lopez, Salvio, Gianutio and Selenus receive just a single sentence on page 240. These translations provided the first opportunity for many English speaking people to study the classic Continental chess authors of the past.  Similarly, Lewis's edition of Greco; Gioachino Greco on the Game of Chess, London 1819, receives a passing mention but his similar works on Stamma and Carrera are omitted. 

Hoyle's books are covered in a single sentence and there is no mention of other games compendiums. Published in large numbers and many editions, these works were the only source of chess instruction for many players. Conversely there is a full page illustration of an 1842 edition of Hoyle, but only a handful of  chess books are illustrated. 

Books are largely discussed in general terms and in line with the changing environment. For example Harding examines the price war between Walker and Lewis, and he explains the gradual increase in the publication of games collections, having previously stated on page 232 that no book before the 19th century included game scores between identifiable players; this sounds extraordinary if true. Harding devotes a large part of this chapter to books on the opening, which he has admitted are now of little theoretical interest,  and are probably the least appealing to both historians and collectors; there is comparatively little on tournament and match books which provide an important record of events,  or other useful reference books such as early chess histories and bibliographies. 

                                    _____________________________________________
    

There are many interesting titbits of information such as the revelation on page 118 that J. W. Abbott, editor of the Illustrated London News from 1888 to 1923, named his son Howard Staunton Abbott; and that G. B. Fraser was J. G. White's purchasing agent in Europe from the 1870's to the early 1900's. (page 215). On page 222 detective Harding exposes Baxter Wray, author of Chess at Odds of Pawn and Move, as actually being the publisher W. Morgan junior, and on page 237 he has some interesting comments on the extent of Francis Douce's involvement with Richard Twiss's Chess, 1787 and 1789 and Miscellanies, 1805. This is probably much less than previously thought.

In the final chapter: On Doing Chess History Today, the author shares his knowledge and experiences in researching chess history and advises on making the best use of both physical and non-physical research facilities, including archives, libraries, collections, genealogy and on-line resources.

The detailed Appendices summarise the content of some of the chapters, give additional information to others, and offer corrections and additions to some standard reference works. Appendix I is an annotated list of almost 600 British and Irish chess columns incorporating numerous corrections to Whyld's Chess Columns. Appendix II lists alphabetically British and Irish chess magazines to 1914 with dates, editors, publishers etc. Appendix III has some interesting corrections to The Oxford Companion to Chess and Appendix V lists over 100 amendments to the 1987 published edition of Jeremy Gaige's Chess Personalia.

The chapter notes at the end add more than 400 additional items of information to the main text. These are followed by a brief bibliography, Index of Games and General Index.

                                    _____________________________________________


The book is printed on good quality acid-free paper but it is a pity that it was not published as a hardback and with better quality photographs and illustrations in colour;  presumably cost constraints are to blame.

The author refers to himself as we, or us, or this author throughout except in the acknowledgements where he writes in the first person. This nosism is a little peculiar but what really grates is the constant use of Americanisms throughout the book. This work on British chess literature by an Irish author should be written in "English" English, not the U.S. variety, but the American publishers obviously disagree. The numerous American spellings and expressions are jarring to an "English" English reader, with some expressions being particularly awful such as the London subway (underground), and worst of all, St. Pancras railroad terminus!

The book is unfortunately blighted by many errors; some minor and some major; these are typographical, linguistic, grammatical and factual. I will send a list of those that I spotted to the author and there are undoubtedly many that I missed. It seems that proof reading from both language and factual viewpoints was weak or non-existent.

All in all the book is a fascinating and educational read and it is clear that the author has carried out an incredible amount of research. A corrected version of this work would be the standard reference book as far as chess columns and periodicals are concerned. However, a comprehensive survey of British chess books remains to be written.



                                                          © Michael Clapham 2018




Friday, 3 August 2018

Русский Шахматы Бюллетени - Russian Chess Bulletins



The Soviet Union, besides being the strongest шахматы nation for many years, was also world champion at producing tournament bulletins. From the 1930's to the 1980's almost all important national tournaments were accompanied by a series of Бюллетени produced every few days in the style of a small newspaper, with the latest news and games from the турнир. Often 20 or more Бюллетени were published during an event giving a round by round account of proceedings and usually including other articles of interest. These were bound up to produce important, on the scene, records of the турнир.

The standard Russian chess literature bibliography is  Шахматная Литература СССР Библиография (1775-1966) by Н. И. Сахаров (Nikolay Ivanovich Sakharov), Moscow 1968:



... and the first Бюллетени listed in this библиография were issued during the 7th Soviet Championships held in Москва in October and November 1931:

Бюллетень VII Всесоюзного Шахматно-Шашечного Съезда.  (Sakharov 957, LN 5447, Di Felice Chess Competitions 1382.1)


20 Бюллетени were published between 10th Октября and 17th November giving detailed reports, articles, cross-tables and 107 games, many with light annotations.




Photographs, illustrations and cartoons were a major feature of Russian chess bulletins and this 1931 series includes  a few portraits but not, unfortunately, of the 20 year old winner  М. М. Ботвинник. The tournament was led by Н. Н. Рюмин (N. N. Riumin) for the first 14 rounds but he lost to Ботвинник in round 15 and then lost his last two games to finish two points behind the winner.

The following photograph of Botvinnik in play against Riumin, with close-up observers Vainstein, Volkovissky and Zubarev, is on page 21 of the February 1932 issue of "64". Шахматы в Рабочем Клубе, ("64" Shakhmaty v Rabochem Klube):



 ... and this caricature of Riumin appeared on page 373 of the December 1931 issue of "64". 


A very poor photograph featuring Botvinnik, Riumin and others is on page 372 of the same magazine:


The massive 564 page tournament book on the event; Всесоюзный Шахматный Турнир (Москва 1931 г.), Leningrad and Moscow 1933(Sakharov 490, LN 5446, Di Felice 1382.2):




...has this caricature of Zamikhovsky and Botvinnik on page 276;


... and a cartoon of the event on page 62:


                                                                © Michael Clapham 2018