Saturday, 18 August 2018

64 Schaakportretten by Frits Agterdenbos

64 Schaakportretten: foto's en tekst by Frits Agterdenbos, Venlo, Netherlands 1984.

64 full page photographs of chess personalities are presented, facing a page giving biographical information and a game from the player.  This is a nice idea for a coffee table chess book, but all of the portraits are very close up - too close up, and give a less than flattering image of many of the subjects.

Here is old hairy hands Kasparov:

and Tal looks as Tal does in all photos after the 1950's:

Hippy Miles:

A quizical Petrosian:

and  Robert Hubner looks like he has been annotating to death one of those 25 games.

Ulf Andersson:

Bent Larsen has just put his lippy on:

and Eugenio Torre in Jimi Hendrix pose:

The final eight portraits feature female chess players, and here are the snapper's tributes to the following:

Maja Tsjiboerdanidze (Maia Chiburdanidze):

Nona Gaprindasjvili:

Alexandre van der Mije:  

and Tatiana Lematchko:

However, Pia Cramling is photogenic from any angle:

The photographer reveals himself on the back cover with a small photograph shot at a sensible distance:

Tuesday, 14 August 2018

British Chess Literature to 1914 by Timothy Harding

Dr. Timothy Harding, author of previous deeply researched works on chess history including Correspondence Chess in Britain and Ireland, 1824-1987, 2011, Eminent Victorian Chess Players, 2012, and Joseph Henry Blackburne, 2015, all published by McFarland,  surveys British (and Irish) chess literature up to the First World War in this latest work.

The Preface sets out clearly the aims and content of the book which has a special emphasis on chess columns, and these are comprehensively examined in the first four chapters, plus the very detailed 45 page Appendix I. British and Irish Chess Columns to 1914: An Annotated List, describing nearly 600 columns. Chess Periodicals also receive extensive coverage, especially The Chess Player's Chronicle and its successors which are covered in a separate chapter of 54 pages. 


The history and description of chess columns and periodicals take up six of the seven chapters, and 230 of the 274 pages which discuss chess literature, leaving just one chapter of 44 pages for the comparatively weak examination of chess books; and anyone hoping for a thorough review of the rich history of British chess books will be very disappointed. As early as page 10 Harding dismisses old chess books as having "little to offer the historian" and it is clear that the author is much more inclined towards chess columns and periodicals than general chess books.

Harding forewarns the reader of the cursory coverage of chess books stating that he has not attempted to discuss every chess book that was published because he considers that their value to historians is limited compared to what columns and magazines have to offer. He therefore provides a "less comprehensive and more personal view about old chess books, concentrating on some trends and particular titles that interest the author". 


The book is the result of fifteen years of research, partly, no doubt, alongside the explorations for his earlier publications, and the author has dug up considerable new information. He clarifies many issues and solves several mysteries, but also puts forward many more such as: 

Who wrote The Illustrated London News column before Staunton? (page 29), 

Who were Staunton's backers in The Chess World? (page 141),

Who edited and contributed to The London Chess Fortnightly while the nominal editor Emanuel Lasker was in America? (page 174), 

What were the precise dates of the various editors of one of the very best chess columns in The Field? (page 61), 

Who edited the third series of The Chess Player's Chronicle between 1859 and 1861? (page 208). 

There is also the tantalising reference on page 157 to the Prospectus issued in August 1879 by Hoffer and Zukertort for their forthcoming periodical The Chess Monthly, "which appears not to have survived".  

Harding is not averse to criticising his fellow authors (see for example his article A reply to Richard Moody in the 2nd edition of his book on the Evans Gambit, Texas 1996), and on page 16 he again has a go at Gino Di Felice's Chess Periodicals, Jefferson 2010, having previously lambasted this work on his Chess Mail website and again on pages 83 et seq. of Caissa, the Journal of Chess and Board Game History, 2/2016. Despite the few omissions and errors in Di Felice's work, it is undoubtedly a very valuable aid to chess researchers.

The comprehensive coverage of 19th century chess columns is the product of some remarkable research, not only of chess history but also of the social, cultural and financial circumstances of the time, and Harding associates the fluctuating popularity of chess and its literature with the changing social and financial climate during the century. 

One matter that the author straightens out in the chapter on The Earliest Chess Editors is the editorship of the chess column in The Lancet from 1823 to 1824. This was by Thomas Wakley and not George Walker to whom the column has often been attributed, including by Whyld in his Chess Columns: A List, Olomouc 2002.

Harding also observes that such was the proliferation of chess columns during what he describes in chapter 3 as The Golden Age of Chess Columns, ca. 1860-1865,  that it has been impossible to examine them all, leaving much material for future research.

The author makes helpful remarks on the usefulness, or otherwise, of the numerous chess columns to chess historians, particularly praising Land and Water and The Field for example, while writing off others as having little of interest. Harding generally writes in a free-flowing, easy to read style, although there are plenty of places where the prose could be improved. There is little, if any humour, but he does evoke the atmosphere of the era and brings to life some of the frictions between the factions, i.e. the ill-feeling and animosities between the English and foreign chess editors of the time.


The chapter entitled A Short History of Chess Magazines up to 1914 gives brief details of most of the English language magazines up to that date, including some American Magazines, and Harding notes that many were short lived and were not financially viable. In discussing The British Chess Magazine Harding highlights the revolutionary change, in 1892, in the placement of annotations within the game score instead of at the end, "where they had hitherto languished in all chess books and columns with miserable indications (sometimes omitted or misplaced) to show where they belonged". 

Some periodicals are examined in more depth than others and The British Miscellany, forerunner of The Chess Player's Chronicle, but with little chess content itself, receives inordinate coverage on pages 178 to 192 and in the whole of Appendix IV. While historically important in the evolution of chess periodicals and including some of the final games played by de la Bourdonnais, the attention given does not balance with the coverage of some other mainstream chess periodicals which are hardly discussed at all.

Harding's very detailed account of The Chess Player's Chronicle is now the definitive historical record of this long running periodical, with comprehensive information on the many stops and starts, owners, editors and publishers throughout its chequered career from 1841 to 1902. He is sympathetic to the difficulties facing Staunton in the early years due to the shortage of suitable chess material in the 1840's, and when discussing Staunton's successor, R. B. Brien, he quotes Brien's astute comment regarding the effort involved in game annotations; that "few appreciate the labour but all reap the advantages". This certainly hits the nail on the head not only in annotating games but in chess writing in general. 

The author also raises the very valid point that, due to the break in publication of the CPC in 1857 and 1858, there was no contemporary coverage in British chess periodicals of the important Manchester 1857 and Birmingham 1858 tournaments, and even more lamentably, on Morphy's first visit to Europe.
One matter that I disagree on is Harding's assessment of The Chess Amateur (1906 to 1930) as having "little to offer historians".  This successful periodical had a star cast of contributors and a great many articles and items of interest to current chess historians, not least the many items taken from the contemporary chess historian W. S. Branch's column in The Cheltenham Examiner.


The final chapter on chess literature; A Century and half of British Chess Books, actually examines nearly four and half centuries of chess books published from 1475 to 1914. However, as previously mentioned, the author has a low opinion of the usefulness of old chess books to historians and researchers, claiming that chess columns and periodicals contain far more useful factual information. He does however, make some valid points about how antiquarian books should be viewed from a cultural history perspective and he also acknowledges that most old chess books have some value for collectors, but he erroneously singles out chess problem works as being the most desirable. Tournament and match books, biographies and many early treatises are equally sought after.

The discussion of chess books in this chapter is cursory in the extreme, many important books are not mentioned at all and many others receive only the briefest passing reference. For example Sarratt's two volume work A Treatise on the Game of Chess, London 1808, is discussed at length on pages 238 to 240, but his more important, although abridged, translations of the works of Damiano, Ruy Lopez, Salvio, Gianutio and Selenus receive just a single sentence on page 240. These translations provided the first opportunity for many English speaking people to study the classic Continental chess authors of the past.  Similarly, Lewis's edition of Greco; Gioachino Greco on the Game of Chess, London 1819, receives a passing mention but his similar works on Stamma and Carrera are omitted. 

Hoyle's books are covered in a single sentence and there is no mention of other games compendiums. Published in large numbers and many editions, these works were the only source of chess instruction for many players. Conversely there is a full page illustration of an 1842 edition of Hoyle, but only a handful of  chess books are illustrated. 

Books are largely discussed in general terms and in line with the changing environment. For example Harding examines the price war between Walker and Lewis, and he explains the gradual increase in the publication of games collections, having previously stated on page 232 that no book before the 19th century included game scores between identifiable players; this sounds extraordinary if true. Harding devotes a large part of this chapter to books on the opening, which he has admitted are now of little theoretical interest,  and are probably the least appealing to both historians and collectors; there is comparatively little on tournament and match books which provide an important record of events,  or other useful reference books such as early chess histories and bibliographies. 


There are many interesting titbits of information such as the revelation on page 118 that J. W. Abbott, editor of the Illustrated London News from 1888 to 1923, named his son Howard Staunton Abbott; and that G. B. Fraser was J. G. White's purchasing agent in Europe from the 1870's to the early 1900's. (page 215). On page 222 detective Harding exposes Baxter Wray, author of Chess at Odds of Pawn and Move, as actually being the publisher W. Morgan junior, and on page 237 he has some interesting comments on the extent of Francis Douce's involvement with Richard Twiss's Chess, 1787 and 1789 and Miscellanies, 1805. This is probably much less than previously thought.

In the final chapter: On Doing Chess History Today, the author shares his knowledge and experiences in researching chess history and advises on making the best use of both physical and non-physical research facilities, including archives, libraries, collections, genealogy and on-line resources.

The detailed Appendices summarise the content of some of the chapters, give additional information to others, and offer corrections and additions to some standard reference works. Appendix I is an annotated list of almost 600 British and Irish chess columns incorporating numerous corrections to Whyld's Chess Columns. Appendix II lists alphabetically British and Irish chess magazines to 1914 with dates, editors, publishers etc. Appendix III has some interesting corrections to The Oxford Companion to Chess and Appendix V lists over 100 amendments to the 1987 published edition of Jeremy Gaige's Chess Personalia.

The chapter notes at the end add more than 400 additional items of information to the main text. These are followed by a brief bibliography, Index of Games and General Index.


The book is printed on good quality acid-free paper but it is a pity that it was not published as a hardback and with better quality photographs and illustrations in colour;  presumably cost constraints are to blame.

The author refers to himself as we, or us, or this author throughout except in the acknowledgements where he writes in the first person. This nosism is a little peculiar but what really grates is the constant use of Americanisms throughout the book. This work on British chess literature by an Irish author should be written in "English" English, not the U.S. variety, but the American publishers obviously disagree. The numerous American spellings and expressions are jarring to an "English" English reader, with some expressions being particularly awful such as the London subway (underground), and worst of all, St. Pancras railroad terminus!

The book is unfortunately blighted by many errors; some minor and some major; these are typographical, linguistic, grammatical and factual. I will send a list of those that I spotted to the author and there are undoubtedly many that I missed. It seems that proof reading from both language and factual viewpoints was weak or non-existent.

All in all the book is a fascinating and educational read and it is clear that the author has carried out an incredible amount of research. A corrected version of this work would be the standard reference book as far as chess columns and periodicals are concerned. However, a comprehensive survey of British chess books remains to be written.

                                                          © Michael Clapham 2018

Friday, 3 August 2018

Русский Шахматы Бюллетени - Russian Chess Bulletins

The Soviet Union, besides being the strongest шахматы nation for many years, was also world champion at producing tournament bulletins. From the 1930's to the 1980's almost all important national tournaments were accompanied by a series of Бюллетени produced every few days in the style of a small newspaper, with the latest news and games from the турнир. Often 20 or more Бюллетени were published during an event giving a round by round account of proceedings and usually including other articles of interest. These were bound up to produce important, on the scene, records of the турнир.

The standard Russian chess literature bibliography is  Шахматная Литература СССР Библиография (1775-1966) by Н. И. Сахаров (Nikolay Ivanovich Sakharov), Moscow 1968:

... and the first Бюллетени listed in this библиография were issued during the 7th Soviet Championships held in Москва in October and November 1931:

Бюллетень VII Всесоюзного Шахматно-Шашечного Съезда.  (Sakharov 957, LN 5447, Di Felice Chess Competitions 1382.1)

20 Бюллетени were published between 10th Октября and 17th November giving detailed reports, articles, cross-tables and 107 games, many with light annotations.

Photographs, illustrations and cartoons were a major feature of Russian chess bulletins and this 1931 series includes  a few portraits but not, unfortunately, of the 20 year old winner  М. М. Ботвинник. The tournament was led by Н. Н. Рюмин (N. N. Riumin) for the first 14 rounds but he lost to Ботвинник in round 15 and then lost his last two games to finish two points behind the winner.

The following photograph of Botvinnik in play against Riumin, with close-up observers Vainstein, Volkovissky and Zubarev, is on page 21 of the February 1932 issue of "64". Шахматы в Рабочем Клубе, ("64" Shakhmaty v Rabochem Klube):

 ... and this caricature of Riumin appeared on page 373 of the December 1931 issue of "64". 

A very poor photograph featuring Botvinnik, Riumin and others is on page 372 of the same magazine:

The massive 564 page tournament book on the event; Всесоюзный Шахматный Турнир (Москва 1931 г.), Leningrad and Moscow 1933(Sakharov 490, LN 5446, Di Felice 1382.2):

...has this caricature of Zamikhovsky and Botvinnik on page 276;

... and a cartoon of the event on page 62:

                                                                © Michael Clapham 2018

Friday, 13 July 2018

Notes on the End-Game by C. E. C. Tattersall

Section 22 of Betts' Chess Bibliography covers specific types of the end-game and has just three entries:

22-1 Analysis of the Chess Ending, King and Queen against King and Rook, by Euclid (Alfred Crosskill), London 1895.

22-3 Collection of Chess Studies, by A. A. Troitzky, Leeds 1937, which includes a 61 page supplement on the theory of the end-game of two knights against pawns. 

and 22-2 Notes on the End-Game. Part I. King and Pawn against King, by C. E. C. Tattersall, Leeds 1915.

Tattersall's work is a small pamphlet of 24 pages, re-printed from The British Chess Magazine  (April and May 1915),  in which he tackles this seemingly simple end-game in a very unusual manner, with the aim of calculating the mathematical probability of any legal position of K+p v K being a win or draw with best play.

Pages 4 to 14 explain in great detail the methods of play for both sides in K+p v K endings, with the help of many useful diagrams.  

On pages 15 to 24 Tattersall moves on to calculate the chances of a forced win or draw for any random legal position of K+p v K. For convenience the author has called the stronger force White and, using some clever methodology and straight forward arithmetic, he calculates that there are 330,576 such legal positions, of which White wins 76.47% with the move, but only 58.35% if Black moves first.  Black's chances of drawing nearly double with the move.

Tattersall then breaks down his analysis to show the chances of a win for various positions of the Black king, and various positions of the White pawn, with some interesting, but generally predictable, results. Black's best drawing chances arise when his king is on the 6th or 7th ranks of the centre files, and White's winning chances increase the further forward his pawn starts.  

Furthermore, a White pawn on the second rank is better situated than one on the third rank, unless it is a rook's pawn, and a pawn on the knight's file is slightly more advantageous than a pawn on any other file. 

Tattersall's calculations and statistics are fascinating to some but leave others cold, and perhaps the latter prevailed as no additional pamphlets in this series appeared, despite the hopes expressed in his Preface that others would follow dealing with further aspects of the end-game.    

Tattersall was a leading end-game expert of the period and this little known pamphlet was published four years after his well known two volume work A Thousand End-Games, Leeds 1910 and 1911. He was also an authority on fine carpets and wrote a number of books on the subject. 

                                        © Michael Clapham 2018

Sunday, 1 July 2018

The Chess World: International Chess Review

George Koltanowski, the prolific chess author and columnist, has many books to his credit (or debit) from 1927 onwards and had a 51 year spell as editor of the daily chess column in the San Francisco Chronicle. His writings were sometimes inaccurate and unreliable, and he certainly took a bashing in the Chess Notes feature article Koltanowski, mainly in respect of his later works.
His initial involvement in chess literature was with the Belgian chess magazine Het Schaakleven, first issued in October 1923 and lasting for around six months; then with the new series of that magazine which re-launched in 1931. In October 1932 he started his own periodical The Chess World: International Chess Review. The magazine was published in Antwerp, Belgium where Koltanowski was born in 1903, of Polish parentage. Interestingly the magazine was published in English, with the odd item in Dutch, and algebraic notation was used for the majority of the games. The magazines were printed in the attractive Art Deco style of the period.

Although not specifically named as editor in the first issue, Koltanowski is clearly named on the front cover of all other issues and it is curious that he is not mentioned in the entry for this magazine in Belgian chess publications; an annotated bibliography, Antwerp 2011 or the Corrigenda et Addenda issued in 2016.

Koltanowski had ambitious plans and, like many similar enterprises, he aimed to supply the "long felt want" for a first class chess magazine catering for players of all abilities. The editor aspired to produce the best chess magazine in the world and to deliver this punctually on the 1st of every month.

The publishers offered optimistic 5 year, 10 year, and even lifetime subscription rates but, as Timothy Harding notes on page 121 of his recent book British Chess Literature to 1914: "The history of chess magazines in general...shows much enthusiasm but often little staying power", and, no doubt partly due to the difficult financial climate of The Depression, The Chess World folded after eleven months during which only nine issues appeared, the last two being double numbers.  

Nevertheless a considerable amount of interesting material was packed into the 48 pages of each magazine. This included a total of 500 games, plus reports, from the leading tournaments and matches of the time, problem and end-game sections, correspondence chess, articles on the openings, news, book reviews and some lively correspondence. 

Occasional special articles by, and about, leading chess-players also appeared including: Chess... Past, Present and Future, by Rudolf Spielmann in issue No.1:

 A chat with E. D. Bogoljubow, in No. 2:

An appraisal of Capablanca's chess career, in No. 3; and Max Euwe on the achievements and style of Alekhine, in No. 4. Here is the final paragraph of the five page Capablanca article:

Issue No. 5 was a Special Hastings Number with the editor claiming that this was practically a tournament book on the 1932/33 Hastings International Congress. This number included a report by W. Winter: A Bird's eye view of the Hastings Congress, and 39 games from the Premier Tournament won by Flohr ahead of Pirc, Steiner and Sultan Khan. The only other book on this tournament was an E. G. R. Cordingley Limited Edition of just 30 copies. 

Each issue of the The Chess World, except the last, featured a full page portrait of a leading chess figure with brief biographical details. The celebrated players being Sir George Thomas, Mir Sultan Khan, Dr. M. Euwe, C. H. O'D. Alexander, Vlasimir Pirc, Miss Vera Menchik, Lajos Steiner, and J. Rejfir. 


Signs of the gathering clouds appeared with the double issue for May and June 1933 which lacked the usual editorial and included an apology from the publisher promising to catch up with news and games in future numbers. The long term subscriptions were no longer offered. The final issue for July-August 1933 was a bumper number with 64 pages and 120 games but there was no editorial, or publisher's apology, no feature portrait, or reader's letters.  There was also no mention that this would be the last copy. 

All nine issues carried large adverts for Frank Hollings' Chess Book Salon and Whiteley's, headquarters of The Empire Social Chess Club and Association


Original copies of this magazine are quite scarce but a facsimile edition was published by Moravian Chess in 2003.

                                      © Michael Clapham 2018